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Contents - JLME - 2007 Volume 35: 1
Table of Contents
  1. Table of Contents
Letter From The Editor
  1. Letter From The Editor
Symposium Articles
  1. Moving Forward the Discussion on Childhood Obesity
  2. From Tastes Great to Cool: Children's Food Marketing and the Rise of the Symbolic
  3. Parental Influence on Eating Behavior: Conception to Adolescence
  4. Are Dietary Intakes and Eating Behaviors Related to Childhood Obesity? A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence
  5. What Does the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity Mean for Children with Special Health Care Needs?
  6. Actions Necessary to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Creating the Climate for Change
  7. Application of Law to the Childhood Obesity Epidemic
  8. Addressing the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity Through School-Based Interventions: What Has Been Done and Where Do We Go From Here?
  9. Community Interventions: A Brief Overview and their Application to the Obesity Epidemic
  10. Local Venues for Change: Legal Strategies for Healthy Environments
  11. Trends in Childhood Obesity Research: A Brief Analysis of NIH-Supported Efforts
  12. Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonald's Role May Surprise You
Independent Articles
  1. The Politics of Palliative Care and the Ethical Boundaries of Medicine: Gonzales v. Oregon as a Cautionary Tale
  2. What is Wrong with "Ethics for Sale"? An Analysis of the Many Issues that Complicate the Debate About Conflicts of Interests in Bioethics
  3. The Best Interests Standard for Incompetent or Incapacitated Persons of All Ages
  4. The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia
Columns
  1. Currents in Contemporary Ethics
  2. Reviews in Medical Ethics
  3. Recent Developments in Health Law
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
ASLME - [PDF] (Free Download)
Table of Contents
Letter From the Editor
Letter From The Editor
ASLME - [PDF]

Letter From The Editor
Symposium Articles
Moving Forward the Discussion on Childhood Obesity
P. K. Newby - [PDF]

Moving Forward the Discussion on Childhood Obesity
From Tastes Great to Cool: Children's Food Marketing and the Rise of the Symbolic
Juliet B. Schor, Margaret Ford - [PDF]

Children's exposure to food marketing has exploded in recent years, along with rates of obesity and overweight. Children of color and low-income children are dispropor-tionately at risk for both marketing exposure and becom-ing overweight. Comprehensive reviews of the literature show that advertising is effective in changing children's food preferences and diets. This paper surveys the scope and scale of current marketing practices, and focuses on the growing use of symbolic appeals that are central in food brands to themes such as finding an identity and feeling powerful and in control. These themes are so potent because they are central to children in their devel-opment and constitution of self. The paper concludes that reduction of exposure to marketing will be a central part of any successful anti-obesity strategy.
Parental Influence on Eating Behavior: Conception to Adolescence
Jennifer S. Savage, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Leann L. Birch - [PDF]

The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclu-sive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet qual-ity, and weight status. Parents play a powerful role in children's eating behavior, providing both genes and environ-ment for children. For example, they influence children's developing preferences and eating behaviors by making some foods available rather than others, and by acting as models of eating behavior. In addition, parents use feed-ing practices, which have evolved over thousands of years, to promote patterns of food intake necessary for children's growth and health. However in current eating environ-ments, characterized by too much inexpensive palatable, energy dense food, these traditional feeding practices can promote overeating and weight gain. To meet the chal-lenge of promoting healthy weight in children in the cur-rent eating environment, parents need guidance regarding alternatives to traditional feeding practices.
Are Dietary Intakes and Eating Behaviors Related to Childhood Obesity? A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence
P. K. Newby - [PDF]

The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review studies that have examined the relation between diet and childhood obesity. The review specifically considers the roles of total energy intake and energy density; dietary composition; individual foods, food groups, and dietary patterns; beverage consumption; and eating behaviors. The paper also discusses methodological considerations and future research directions and concludes by summa-rizing the evidence presented and highlighting the ethical issues surrounding providing dietary advice.
What Does the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity Mean for Children with Special Health Care Needs?
Paula M. Minihan, Sarah N. Fitch, Aviva Must - [PDF]

Bringing the 12.8% of children with special healthcare needs into the national response to the childhood obesity epidemic will require new information, a view of health promotion beyond that which occurs within healthcare systems, and services and supports in addition to the multi-sectoral strategies presently designed for children overall. These efforts are necessary to protect the health of the nation's 9.4 million children with special health care needs now and long-term.
Actions Necessary to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Creating the Climate for Change
Marlene B. Schwartz, Kelly D. Brownell - [PDF]

Childhood obesity has become a public health epidemic, and currently a battle exists over how to frame and address this problem. This paper explores how public policy approaches can be employed to address obesity. We present the argument that obesity should be viewed as the consequence of a "toxic environment" rather than the result of the population failing to take enough "personal responsibility." In order to make progress in decreasing the prevalence of obesity, we must shift our view of obe-sity away from the medical model (which focuses on the individual) to a public health model (which focuses on the population). At the same time, we must be sensitive to the problem of weight bias. Potential obstacles to taking a public policy approach are identified, as well as sugges-tions on how to overcome them.
Application of Law to the Childhood Obesity Epidemic
Jess Alderman, Jason A. Smith, Ellen J. Fried, Richard A. Daynard - [PDF]

Childhood obesity is in important respects a result of legal policies that influence both dietary intake and physical activity. The law must shift focus away from individual risk factors alone and seek instead to promote situational and environmental influences that create an atmosphere conducive to health. To attain this goal, advocates should embrace a population-wide model of public health, and policymakers must critically examine the fashionable rhetoric of consumer choice.
Addressing the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity Through School-Based Interventions: What Has Been Done and Where Do We Go From Here?
Karen E. Peterson, Mary Kay Fox - [PDF]

Schools are ideal settings for implementing multi-compo-nent programs to prevent and control childhood obesity. Thoughtful improvements to proven strategies, coupled with careful evaluation, can contribute to accumulation of evidence needed to design and implement the next gen-eration of optimal interventions.
Community Interventions: A Brief Overview and their Application to the Obesity Epidemic
Christina D. Economos and Sonya Irish-Hauser - [PDF]

Community-based interventions built on theory and informed by community members produce potent, sustainable change. This intervention model mobilizes inherent community assets and pinpoints specific needs. Advancing community-based research to address obesity will require training of future leaders in this methodology, funding to conduct rigorous trials, and scientific accep-tance of this model.
Local Venues for Change: Legal Strategies for Healthy Environments
Marice Ashe, Lisa M. Feldstein, Samantha Graff, Randolph Kline, Debora Pinkas, Leslie Zellers - [PDF]

Mounting evidence documents the extraordinary toll on human health resulting from the consumption of unhealthy food products and physical inactivity. In response to America's growing obesity problem, local policymakers have been looking for legal strategies that can be adopted in their communities to encourage health-ful behaviors. In order to provide practical tools to poli-cymakers, this article examines four possible venues for local policy change to improve the health of a community: (1) the school environment (2) the built environment () community facilities and (4) the point of sale environ-ment. Finally, the article examines the use of taxes or fees as a means of paying for nutrition policy work as well as potentially reducing the consumption of unhealthy prod-ucts. This article illustrates that local laws and policies can be a valuable tool in changing a community's environ-ment in order to improve nutritional options and increase opportunities for physical activity.
Trends in Childhood Obesity Research: A Brief Analysis of NIH-Supported Efforts
Terry TK Huang and Mary N. Horlick - [PDF]

Childhood obesity is an increasing health threat. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary fund-ing agency for research into the causes, mechanisms, consequences, and prevention and treatment of child-hood obesity. Using the NIH Strategic Plan for Obesity Research as the framework, this article summarizes the research that has been funded in the past five years as well as new research areas with great potential.
Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonald's Role May Surprise You
Catherine Adams - [PDF]

Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonald's Role May Surprise You
Independent Articles
The Politics of Palliative Care and the Ethical Boundaries of Medicine: Gonzales v. Oregon as a Cautionary Tale
Bryan Hilliard - [PDF]

The U.S. Supreme Court's 6- decision in Gonzales v. Oregon is the latest defeat for the Bush administration in its sustained attack on Oregon's physician-assisted suicide law. Both the majority opinion and the major dissent in Oregon provide an opportunity to assess the dangers inherent in allowing a political agenda that emphasizes the sanctity of life and minimizes professional ethical obligations to overshadow quality patient care at the end of life.
What is Wrong with "Ethics for Sale"? An Analysis of the Many Issues that Complicate the Debate About Conflicts of Interests in Bioethics
David N. Sontag - [PDF]

In this article, the author addresses all of the issues involved in the debate about whether or not bioethicists should be paid by private biomedical companies to per-form consultations. These issues include the following: differentiation of this role from bioethicists' other roles, an analysis of to whom bioethicists owe a duty, consideration of what bioethicists are "selling," whether bioethicists should be allowed to get paid, when payment becomes problematic, and whether consulting fee arrangements should be regulated. The author often compares bioethi-cists' relationship to the companies to bioethicists' other relationships, as well as to professional relationships in other fields, such as law and accounting.
The Best Interests Standard for Incompetent or Incapacitated Persons of All Ages
Loretta M. Kopelman - [PDF]

When making decisions for adults who lack decision-making capacity and have no discernable preferences, widespread support exists for using the Best Interests Standard. This policy appeals to adults and is compatible with many important recommendations for persons facing end-of-life choices. Common objections to the policy are discussed as well as different meanings of this Standard identified, such as using it to express goals or ideals and to make practical decisions incorporating what reasonable persons would want. For reasons of consistency, fairness, and compassion, this standard should be used for all inca-pacitated persons.
The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia
Penney Lewis - [PDF]

This article examines the evidence for the empirical argu-ment that there is a slippery slope between the legaliza-tion of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively ? to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.
Columns
Currents in Contemporary Ethics
Sandra J. Carnahan - [PDF]

Currents in Contemporary Ethics
Reviews in Medical Ethics
William P. Kabasenche - [PDF]

Reviews in Medical Ethics
Recent Developments in Health Law
Elizabeth Gerber and Sarah Schalman-Bergen - [PDF]

Recent Developments in Health Law