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Letter From the Editor
Letter From The Editor
ASLME - [PDF] (Free Download)
Throughout the years, we have published several symposium issues and independent articles on global health. It is an important topic for many of our readers who work at academic institutions and government agencies. Every day they aim to better the health of those around the world. But how did these global health professionals develop the skills necessary for their work? What type of training was involved? What skills from other professions did they incorporate into their own? Did their undergraduate education prepare them for such an interconnected field?
Virginia Rowthorn, Jody Olsen, and Jon Mark Hirshon - [PDF] (Free Download)
Although the field of global health is uniformly understood to involve "interdisciplinary collaboration" and require "multifaceted methods," little has been done at the university level to foster the kind of interprofessional learning that will produce professionals ready to engage in the collaborative work the field demands. Although initially incubated in medical and nursing schools, global health programs can now be found across a spectrum of professional schools, including many outside of the health sciences. These programs, which have been created to meet a growing demand among students and faculty, include global health courses, competitions, experiential learning opportunities, certificates, and degree programs. While most of these initiatives are interprofessional in the sense that they incorporate faculty and students from across a range of schools and provide opportunities for collaboration, few programs provide specific training in how to work together effectively. As a result, students may graduate with the substantive tools to practice in the global health field, but lack the collaborative skills to employ these abilities successfully as part of a team.
Symposium Articles
A Historical and Undergraduate Context to Inform Interprofessional Education for Global Health
Brittany Seymour and Jane Barrow - [PDF] (Free Download)
Despite remarkable improvements in health worldwide over the past century, both persisting and new global challenges are impacting health in complex ways. For the first time, people living in urban areas outnumber those living in rural regions, and there are now more individuals over the age of 60 than under the age of five. Socioeconomic disparities between and within countries are widening. Many countries are experiencing what has been dubbed the "double burden of disease," managing risk factors and consequences of both infectious and non-communicable disease.
Envisioning a Transdisciplinary University
Leigh Carroll, Mohammed K. Ali, Patricia Cuff, Mark D. Huffman, Bridget B. Kelly, Sandeep P. Kishore, K. M. Venkat Narayan, Karen R. Siegel, and Rajesh Vedanthan - [PDF] (Free Download)
Thomas Jefferson once suggested that a university should be designed so that "the whole arranged around an open square of grass and trees would make it, what it should be in fact, an academical village." Unfortunately, the current academic setting often bears little resemblance to a village that pools its residents' strengths to learn and solve problems. Instead, universities often seem to take pride in their collections of segmented and highly-specialized disciplines functioning in their own silos - a structure that often serves as an impediment to effective collaboration. Is it possible to change this and design universities that are arranged around an open square of ideas - allowing human creativity, compassion, and critical thinking to form a community that can address society's great and pressing problems?
Identifying Global Health Competencies to Prepare 21st Century Global Health Professionals: Report from the Global Health Competency Subcommittee of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health
Lynda Wilson, Brian Callender, Thomas L. Hall, Kristen Jogerst, Herica Torres, and Anvar Velji - [PDF] (Free Download)
As the number of universities offering courses, certificates, and academic programs focused on global health has expanded in recent years, an urgent need exists to identify specific competencies and outcomes to guide the curricula in these programs. To address this need, the chair of the Education Committee of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) appointed a Subcommittee in April 2013, and charged the members of this Subcommittee with "determining if there exists a need for broad global health core competencies applicable across disciplines, and if so, what those competencies should be. A related task is to provide support as needed in the development of discipline-based core competencies through the publicizing and sharing of existing materials and expertise." The original members of the Subcommittee included the six co-authors of this paper.
Towards Defining Interprofessional Competencies for Global Health Education: Drawing on Educational Frameworks and the Experience of the UW-Madison Global Health Institute
Lori DiPrete Brown - [PDF] (Free Download)
The UW-Madison Global Health Institute (UW-GHI) has been engaged in programs for interprofessional and interdisciplinary global public health education for the past seven years. During that period, the Graduate Certificate in Global Health has graduated 123 students from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, veterinary medicine, and other fields. The recently developed (2010) Undergraduate Certificate/Minor in Global Health, which is offered through the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has graduated 187 students from a variety of majors. Both programs embrace a broad understanding of health to include the health and well-being of people, animals, and the environment. Thus, as well as fulfilling curricular requirements related to global health discussed below, the programs reflect UW-Madison strengths in environmental health, nutrition, and agriculture as well as the health professions.
Relationships Matter: The Role for Social-Emotional Learning in an Interprofessional Global Health Education
Toby Treem Guerin - [PDF] (Free Download)
The health care field must continually adjust to meet the needs of people and populations even as there are changes in the health care workforce, access to health care, population distributions, and environmental determinants of health. A relatively recent effort to ensure that health care systems provide comprehensive and efficient care in this fluid environment is through increased collaboration across professions. The once-siloed approach to health care services is taking steps to evolve into a comprehensive interprofessional practice model covering both preventive and reactive health care services. In recent years, schools of public health, medicine, and other health professions have started to define the core competencies essential for success in the interprofessional health care context. The field of global health, which includes practitioners from multiple health and non-health disciplines, is moving in the same direction and beginning to define core competencies for graduate global health education.
The Creation of an Institutional Commons: Institutional and Individual Benefits and Risks in Global Health Interprofessional Education
Andrea Pfeifle and Mark Earnest - [PDF] (Free Download)
Increasing the number of adequately trained health care workers is one way to start addressing the need for greater and more equitable access to health services and to achieve universal health coverage globally. The World Health Organization and its partners recognize interprofessional collaboration in education and practice as important strategies toward mitigating the global health workforce crisis. Indeed, numerous authors, bodies, and consortia have vocally supported interprofessional collaborative practice as one of the most potent tools for addressing the challenges faced by health care systems across the globe, and that interprofessional education (IPE) in turn is a necessary ingredient for preparing the workforce for the complexities of such practice. Given the near universal call for IPE and the growing mandate from accrediting agencies for its incorporation into training for many professions,4 as well as the push to incorporate interprofessional collaborative practice and IPE into strategies for addressing global health challenges, many institutions will be challenged to develop IPE programs in the months and years ahead.
Organizational Learning and the Development of Global Health Educational Capabilities: Critical Reflections on a Decade of Practice
Jeffrey V. Johnson, Rosemary F. Riel, Yolanda Ogbolu, Marik Moen, Anne Brenner, and Emilia Iwu - [PDF] (Free Download)
Over the past decade the University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMB) and the University of Maryland School of Nursing (UMSON) have been engaged in a multi-stage process of exploring new ideas for global health education which has led to implementing organizational processes and structures to support a series of innovative educational programs. Creating global health educational opportunities for our students at UMB was a collective effort, initiated and led by an interprofessional group of faculty. In 2004, when this process began with the formation of the global health concentration of UMB's new MPH program, there was no formal global health educational program at UMB. While UMB's School of Medicine had impressive strengths in global health research and service delivery at that time, not a single general introductory course on global health was available to students from the UMB Schools of Nursing, Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, and Social Work. In this paper we will try to reconstruct the process of organizational learning that led to the development of our global health educational capacity by utilizing an implementation research framework in addition to several key concepts drawn from the organizational and managerial sciences literature. Our emphasis will not be on interprofessional global health student competencies per se, but rather on the organizational capabilities we had to develop as an institution to be able to foster competencies in our students.
Interprofessional Education: A Theoretical Orientation Incorporating Profession-Centrism and Social Identity Theory
Edward Pecukonis - [PDF] (Free Download)
Most health professions recognize the need for interprofessional education and clinical training at both the national and international level. In fact, the World Health Organization crafted interprofessional education (IPE) standards as early as 1970 that supported the establishment of a number of associations dedicated to IPE, such as the Interdisciplinary Professional Education Collaborative (IPEC) (United States), the Centre for Advancement of Professional Education (CAIPE) (United Kingdom), and the Centre for Professional Education Advancement (CPEAP) (Australia). Within the United States, health professionals, legislators, and policymakers are beginning to recognize the need for collaboration between universities and health care providers as we prepare the next generation of health care professionals. In 2011, IPEC published an extensive list of IPE competencies that set forth the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that students across the health professions should master in order to practice effectively as a team. Although many health profession trainees have exposure to multidisciplinary practice within their field work, few residencies, fellowships and/or internships, or graduate educational programs incorporate interprofessional learning competencies as integrated components of both course work and field experiences.
Using Experiential Learning to Develop Interprofessional Skills in Global Health: Perspectives from the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law
Tanya Baytor and Oscar Cabrera - [PDF] (Free Download)
Leveraging skills and experience across disciplines is essential for global health professionals tackling complex barriers to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. Research centers at universities are uniquely positioned to facilitate such interprofessional collaboration, and to educate current and future global health practitioners. For the past three years, the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University (the O'Neill Institute) has offered an interprofessional and collaborative global health law practicum course at Georgetown University Law Center that gives students the opportunity to work on real world global health law and policy projects with the institute's external partners. Through course evaluations and discussions with program faculty and students, we have found that practicum-style courses help foster three fundamental elements of interprofessional collaboration in global health: (1) the ability to define professional roles and responsibilities in a project; (2) interprofessional communication skills; and (3) the ability to work in an interprofessional team. This paper will discuss the O'Neill Institute’s experience in developing interprofessional global health skills through its practicum courses.